Children who are victims of abuse and neglect, at home or at school, tend to have worse education outcomes. This correlation can be partly explained by the impact of violence on mental and physical health. Hormones associated with violence, such as cortisol, can inhibit physical growth and the children’s susceptibility to illness. And it is also the case that these hormones can impair the development of neural connections in parts of the brain that are critical for learning. Violence in the early years can undermine lifelong health, learning, and behavior. Moreover, the interaction between violence and education operates in both directions. This means education can be used as an instrument to reduce the prevalence of violence.